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LESSON 10: SPECIAL– CÁC CẤU TRÚC ĐẶC BIỆT
1, Câu cảm thán
- How + adj : How beautiful! (Đẹp quá)
- How + adj / adv + S + be/ V : How beautifully you sing! (Bạn hát thật hay)
- How + S + V : How you’ve grown! (Con lớn nhanh quá)
- What + a / an (+ adj) + N : What an intelligent girl (she is)!
: What dreadful weather (it is)!
- What (+ a / an) + adj + N + S + V : What a beautiful dress you are wearing!
2. Từ chỉ số lượng
sttTừnghĩa+Nun+Ns(+)(-)(?)1A lot of/ lots of/ plenty ofNhiều√√√√√2A number of/ a great number ofNhiều√√√√3An amount of/ a large amount ofNhiều√√√√4A great deal ofNhiều√√√√5ManyNhiều√√√√6MuchNhiều√√√√7SomeMột vài, một ít√√√√8AnyGì … cả, gì không?√√√√9A little = some√√√10A few = some√√√11Little = only a little = not much√√√12Few = only a few = not many√√√3. ALL – MOST – SOME – NO……….
- all , most, some, no + ( adjective ) + plural noun / uncountable noun
- all of, most of, some of, none of + determiners (a, an, the, my, his, this, that… ) + N
+ pronouns ( them , us……. )
4. Lối nói phụ họa: too, so, either, neither
5. Cấu trúc gợi ý
* S + suggest(s) + V-ing + ...
* S + suggest(s) + (that) + S (+ should )+ V(infinitive) +...
EX: He suggests going fishing this weekend
He suggests (that) we (should) go fishing this weekend.
How about/ what about + V_ing……………?
Let’s + V (bare inf)…………………….
Why don’t you/we + V (bare inf)……………..?
6. Quá, đủ để làm gì
S + V + too + adj/adv + (for someone) + to do something: (quá....để cho ai làm gì...)
S + V + so + adj/ adv + that + S + V: (quá... đến nỗi mà...)
It + V + such + (a/an) + N(s) + that + S + V: (quá... đến nỗi mà...)
S + V + adj/ adv + enough + (for someone) + to do something : (Đủ... cho ai đó làm gì...)
7. Đã đến lúc ai làm gì
It + be + time + S + V (-ed, P2) / It’s +time +for someone + to do something : (đã đến lúc ai đó phải làm gì...) Ex: -It is time you had a shower. (Bạn đã đến lúc đi tắm)8. Mất bao lâu/ bao tiền để làm gì
It + takes/took+ someone + amount of time + to do something: (làm gì... mất bao nhiêu thời gian...)
S + spend + time (on) + Ving9. Cấu trúc với “RATHER” và “PREFER”
- Would rather V (than V) = would prefer to V (rather than V) = prefer Ving to Ving: muốn gì hơn gì
- Prefer to V = would rather V = like Ving: muốn gì hơn
- would rather + S + Ved/ didn’t V (hiện tại): muốn ai làm gì/ muốn ai không làm gì
+ had PP (quá khứ)
+ would V (tương lai)
- rather (conj) = in contrast: trái lại
- rather (Adv) = quite = not very
10. Cấu trúc với “USE”
- used to V/ didn’t use to V: đã từng/ chưa từng (thói quen trong quá khứ)
- be/ get used to Ving: quen với/ đang quen với
11. S + find sth + Adj + to V: ai thấy gì làm sao
Eg: I find it hard to speak English well.
12. It + be + Adj + for sb + to V = Ving + be + Adj
Eg: It’s not easy for me to work hard.
=> Working hard for me is not easy.
13. Adj-ing: miêu tả tính chất – Adj-ed: miêu tả cảm xúc
Adj-ing: interesting, boring, exciting, disappointing, amazing, amusing, depressing, frightening, threatening,…
Adj-ed: interested, bored, excited, disappointed, amazed, amused, depressed, frightened, threatened…
Eg: The dog is frightened when standing in front of the lion. The lion is too frightening. (Chú chó đang sợ hãi. Con sư tử quá đáng sợ)
14. Ving/ PP + N: miêu tả mục đích/ bị tác động
Eg: The broken chair is in the living room. (Chiếc ghế bị gãy ở trong phòng khách)
15. Cấu trúc giả định
Những động từ theo sau bằng hình thức giả định cách:
advise/ ask/ command/ demand/ desire/ insist/ propose/ recommend/ request/ suggest/ urge (that)
- Những cấu trúc theo sau bằng hình thức giả định cách:
It be + best / desirable / imperative / recommended / vital/ crucial / essential /necessary / important / urgent (khẩn cấp) / a good – bad idea
Eg: It’s important that she do the homework carefully.
16. Cấu trúc nhận định
S + modal + have PP: …đã
Must + have PP: chắc hẳn đã
Should/ shouldn’t have PP: nên đã/ không nên đã
Can’t have PP: không thể đã
Needn’t have PP: không cần phải đã
Eg 1: You got mark 10. You must have worked very hard last night. (Bạn chắc hẳn đã học rất chăm chỉ đêm qua – vì được 10 điểm)
Eg 2: You shouldn’t have gone out last night. You look terrible. (Bạn không nên đã đi chơi hôm qua. Trông bạn ghê quá)
17. Trật tự tính từ: OpSAShCOMP: quan điểm – kích cỡ – tuổi hình dáng – màu – xuất xứ - vật liệu – mục đích)
(opinion – size – age – shape – color – origin – material – purpose ) + N
Eg: I have a beautiful small old round blue Japanese wool sleeping bag.
18. Cấu trúc nhờ vả (nhờ/ bị … làm gì)
S + get sb + to V = S + have sb + V = S + have/get + sth + PP
Eg 1: I get my sister to do my homework.
= I have my sister do my homework.
= I have/ get my homework done by my sister.
19, bj động kép
People/they + think/say/suppose/believe/consider/report.....+ that + clause.
It's + thought/said/ supposed/believed/considered/reported...+ that + clauseS + am/is/are + thought/ said/supposed... + to + Vinf
+ to have PP
20, need (v) + to V => to be PP/ V-ing (bị động)
don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t need to V
needn’t V/ Need S + V (modal)
needn’t have PP: không cần phải đã
21. no sth left: không còn gì nữa
There is no + N + left: Không còn lại thứ gì đó = S + have run out of + N (Chúng ta hết…rồi! – dùng hiện tại hoàn thành với chủ ngữ là “we”)
Eg: There is no sugar left! = We have run out of sugar!
22. No… nor…: There + be + no + N + nor + N: Không có…và cũng không có
Eg: There is no bread nor milk.
Today, there is no team assignment nor homework.
GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1
Choose the correct answer
She was once bitten by a monkey, .......made her dislike monkeys for the rest of her life.
A. whose B. that C. which D. who
It was announced that neither the passengers nor the driver......in the crash.
A. injured B. were injured C. had injured D. was injured
It before you start applying for any job, you must be absolutely sure you have right.......
A. qualifying B. qualifiers C. qualities D. qualifications
I ........you know important this is.
A. need to hardly tell B. need hardly to tell C. need to tell hardly D. need hardly tell
.......at Hanoi Sakura Festival 2017, we found it very impressive.
A. As soon as it rained B. If it hadn’t rained C. Much as it rained D. because it was raining
.......dead no longer need.... help. We must concern ourselves w ith......living.
A. A - the - a B. The - the - the C. A - a - a D. The - Ø - the
The dress is a little big for you.. You’d better go to tailor’s and......at the waist.
A. have it made wider B. have it made less wide C. make it less wide D. make it wider
Not only.......among the largest animal that ever lived, but they are also among the more intelligent.
A. they are whales B. are whales C. whales D. some whales
The students were not satisfied........
A. as the teacher’s not informing them about the coming test.
B. because of the teacher's not informing them of the coming test.
C. because the teacher not inform them of the coming test.
D. since the teacher's no information about the coming test.
It is the imperativeness that anyone of us.......how to behave properly in different cultures. - "When in Rome do as Romans do", goes an English saying.
A. learns B. learn C. must learn D. will learn
We need.......information before we can decide.
A. farther B. further C. far D. furthest
Many experts agree that there is a possibility........in this area in the following days.
A. that some more earthquakes may happen B. where may some more earthquakes happen
C. what may some more earthquakes happen D. when some more earthquakes may happen
Some researchers are finding that daydreaming may be important to......mental health and it is......good means of relaxation.
A. Ø - Ø B. Ø - the C. Ø - a D. the - Ø
There was a.......look on her face because a.......problem.......the little girl.
A. puzzled; puzzling; puzzled B. puzzled; puzzled; puzzled
C. puzzling; puzzling; puzzled D. puzzling; puzzled; puzzling
This is the biggest lab........we have ever built in our university.
A. which B. what C. that D. where
Henry has come in his raincoat and boots, .......for rain.
A. preparing B. to prepare C. prepares D. prepared
......for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.
A. Be it not B. Had it not been C. Were it not D. Should it not
The bicycle.....now. You can do it tomorrow or the day after tomorrow on Mars.
A. need to repair B. needn't be repaired C. needn't repairing D. need repairing
It's very kind of you to give me something on my birthday, but you.......bought such an expensive present like this.
A. needn't have B. didn't need C. haven't needed D. needn't
Not only......the exam but she also got the scholarship.
A. did she pass B. she passed C. has she passed D. she has passed
......you study,......marks you will get.
A. The harder - the best B. The harder - the better
C. The more - the much D. The hardest - the best
By the end of the 21st century, Chinese astronauts.......
A. will have landed B. will land C. will be landed D. will be landing
He asked me......home the day before.
A. what time I left B. what time I leave
C. what time I had left D. what time I will leave
Computers are.......used in schools and universities.
A. widely B. width C. widen D. wide
......you study,......marks you will get.
A. The harder - the best B. The harder - the better
C. The more - the much D. The hardest - the best
It is time every student......harder for the coming exam.
A. work B. works C. should work D. worked
We......for this opportunity for more than three years.
A. have been waiting B. were waiting C. waited D. are waiting
~ Guest: "Your kitchen is fantastic! Did you do it all by yourself?" ~ Host: "No, .....by a professional."
A. had it designed B. have it to be designed C. designed it D. had designed it
During the week of the national tourism festival, we had visitors......from all over the country.
A. coming B. came C. to have come D. come
It was a service......I will be eternally grateful.
A. for whom B. for which C. to whom D. to which
I didn’t get home until after midnight last night. Otherwise, .....your call.
A. returned B. would have returned C. had returned D. would return
It turned out that we......rushed to the airport as the plane was delayed by several hours.
A. needn’t have B. mustn’t C. hadn’t D. should have
With the help of German experts, the factory produced......cars in 2016 as the year before.
A. as twice as many B. as twice many C. as many as twice D. twice as many
Bill took not only a French class......a Japanese class.
A. but too B. and C. but also D. too
Computers that once took up entire rooms are now......to put on desktops and into wristwatches.
A. small enough B. as small as C. smaller than D. so small
One prefers to shop at Harrod’s, ......?
A. isn’t it B. don’t you C. doesn’t one D. isn’t one
How many......the game is still unknown?
A. fans attended B. fans attending C. did fans attend D. has attended
......here for hours and I feel tired.
A. I have stood B. I have been standing C. I’m standing D. I had been standing
Andrea has a.......rug on the floor in her bedroom.
A. lovely long sheepskin white B. lovely long white sheepskin
C. long lovely white sheepskin D. sheepskin lovely long white
The second bus, ......didn’t stop either.
A. that is full. B. that was full C. which was full. D. what was full
~ "Buy me a newspaper on your way back, .......?"
A. do you B. will you C. don’t you D. can’t you
Susan’s doctor insists......for a few days.
A. her resting B. her to rest C. that she rest D. that she is resting
The United States consists of fifty states, .......has its own government.
A. hence each B. each of which C. they each D. each of that
"What was the groom wearing?" ~ "He was dressed in a........"
A. light suit summer B. light summer suit C. summer suit light D. suit summer light
The balloon festival is.......event that we all desire to attend it.
A. such wonderful an B. so wonderful an C. a very wonderful D. a too wonderful
It’s a pity we didn’t visit Tom when we had the chance. We’d like.......him before he left the country.
A. to have seen B. to see C. to be seen D. to have being seen
David.......for 5 hours before he arrives.
A. will have been driving B. will have been driven C. will have to drive D. will be driving
.......he sat down when he was sent for again.
A. Scarcely had B. No sooner had C. Not until D. Hardly did
I’ll send this project to.......is responsible for designing and building
A. anyone B. whatever C. whoever D. whom
The number of working women.......from 49% in 1980 to nearly 65% in China today.
A. has increased B. is increasing C. have increased D. has been increased
Water volume in rivers in central Vietnam will decline by 30 to 50 percent, potentially leading to a.......between April and June.
A. scarcely B. scarce C. scarify D. scarcity
Books and magazines.......around made his room very untidy.
A. which lied B. lying C. laying D. that lie
Jane really loves the.......jewelry box that her parents gave her as a birthday present.
A. brown wooden nice B. nice wooden brown C. wooden brown nice D. nice brown wooden
"You.......have cooked so many dishes. There are only three of us for lunch."
A. couldn’t B. wouldn’t C. needn’t D. oughtn’t
Everyone here has been to London,.......?
A. hasn’t they B. haven’t they C. has he D. hasn’t he
".......you treat him, he’ll help you. He’s so tolerant."
A. No matter how B. Even though C. As if D. In addition to
She gave me a......box.
A. small square metal jewelry B. jewelry small metal square
C. small square jewelry metal D. jewelry metal small square
Stress, .......is a psychological problem, may lead to physical illness.
A. that B. which C. what D. whose
Nobody says a word about the accident, .......?
A. don't they B. does he C. doesn't he D. do they
You.......your room carelessly because it is still very untidy.
A. can't have cleaned B. must have cleaned C. could clean D. shouldn't clean
Don't try to phone me! By the time you read this letter, .......
A. have left B. I’m leaving C. will have left D. will leave
Mary, ......mother is a doctor, intends to choose medicalcareer.
A. that B. whom C. whose D. who
Internet.......has helped bloggers share their experiences and opinions easily and quickly.
A. connector B. connectivity C. connection D. connecting
My mother advised me.......an apple every day to stay healthy.
A. eat B. eating C. ate D. to eat
It is raining hard. We had better......at hometonight.
A. to stay B. staying C. stay D. to be staying
.......classical dance for five years, Akiko finally felt ready.......in public.
A. Studying / to be performed B. Having studied / to perform
C. To study / performed D. Being studied / having performed
The computer's memory is the place where information.......and calculations are done.
A. kept B. keep C. are kept D. is kept
Last year Matt earned.......his brother, who had a better position.
A. twice as more as B. twice more than C. twice as many as D. twice as much as
Emails are…...among young people than the elders.
A. more used widely B. more widely C. widely more used D. more widely used
Only when you become a parent.......what true responsibility is.
A. you will understand B. don't you understand C. you understand D. will you understand
The preparations......by the time the guests......
A. have been finished - arrived B. had been finished - arrived
C. have finished - arrived D. had finished - arrived
He was offered the job thanks to his......performance during his job interview.
A. impress B. impression C. impressively D. impressive
As an......, Mr. Pike is very worried about the increasing of teenager crimes.
A. educate B. educational C. education D. educator
.......turned out to be true.
A. Everything she had told us B. Everything where she had told us
C. Everything she had told us which D. That everything she told us
Not only......to determine the depth of the ocean floor, but it is also used to locate oil.
A. seismology is used B. to use seismology C. using seismology
D. Is seismology used
You'd better get someone......your living room.
A. redecorating. B. redecorate C. to redecorate D. redecorated
They had invited over one hundred guests, .......
A. none of whom I knew B. I knew none of who
C. not any of whom I knew D. I did not know any of whom
The dictionary......is not available at the moment.
A. for that you asked B. for you asked C. you asked D. you asked for
.......with the size of the whole Earth, the highest mountains do not seem high at all.
A. When compared B. Compare them C. A comparison D. If you compare
I’m sure that you can recognize her at the station; she.......a red raincoat.
A. will be wearing B. will have worn C. is going to wear D. will have been wearing
The workers raised the temperature.......the metal to melt.
A. highly enough for B. high enough for C. enough high for D. high enough at
This.......dictionary includes a few animations.
A. electric B. electrical C. electricity D. electronic
By the time you read this letter, I.......home for Paris.
A. am leaving B. have left C. will have left D. will leave
The bigger the supermarket is, ........
A. the choice is wide B. the wider the choice it is
C. the more the choice is D. the wider the choice will be
The cake is gone and Peter was out during this morning. He.......it.
A. mustn't eat B. mightn't eat C. can't have eaten D. shouldn't have eaten
It was at this shop.......I bought those books.
A. which B. that C. where D. who
........appear, they are really much larger than the Earth.
A. Small as the stars B. Despite of the small stars C. As the small stars D. The stars as small
He has just bought a..........
A. blue sleeping polyester bag B. sleeping blue polyester bag
C. polyester sleeping blue bag D. blue polyester sleeping bag
Because of.......weather conditions, California has an advantage in the production of fruits and vegetables.
A. favour B. favourite C. favourably D. favourable
With greatly increased workloads, everyone is.......pressure now.
A. Under B. above C. upon D. out of
August 3rd, 1998, the day on........my sister was bom, is the first day I remember.
A. that B. it C. which D. when
Sometimes, I do not feel like.......to my sibling about my troubles.
A. to talk B. talking C. talk D. talked
You should have.......your composition carefully before you hand it in.
A. looked in B. gone over C. seen through D. thought of
After seeing the movie 'Centennial', ......
A. the book was read by many people B. the reading of the book interested many people
C. many people wanted to read the book D. the book made many people want to read it
When you......here at this time tomorrow, I......the room up.
A. comes - will tidy B. come - will have tidied
C. will come - will be tidying D. come - will be tidying
When I got up this morning, the kitchem was spotless. Alex......it before she went to bed last night.
A. needn't have tidied B. must have tidied C. should have tidied D. mustn't have tidied
By next June, Kevin......for this company for seven years.
A. will have been working B. is working C. has worked D. will work
I was made.....when I was at school.
A. study hard B. to study hard C. to studying hard D. studying hard
This shirt is......that one.
A. a bit less expensive B. as much expensive as C. not nearly as expensive as D. much far expensive than
My friend bought......from a shop on Tran Phu Street.
A. a brown nice leather belt B. a nice brown leather belt
C. a nice leather brown belt D. a leather brown nice belt.
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