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Câu 1 [63299] - []

Being repeatedly late may just be accidental – or could it show a deeply rooted psychological desire to express your own superiority? When I worked in an office, meetings would often start late, usually because of a certain individual. Then they would overrun and the whole day lost its shape. But the individual was high-ranking and self-important: nobody challenged. So what are the ethics of lateness? There‘s a psychotherapist called Irvin Yalom who argues that all behaviour reflects psychology. Just as people who like to be on time are motivated by certain deep-seated beliefs, so those who make others wait are acting out an inner agenda, often based on an acute sense of power. There‘s famous footage in which Silvio Berlusconi kept Angela Merkel waiting while he made a call on his mobile. It speaks volumes. But that is when all lateness is in one‘s control. What about when your train is cancelled or your flight is delayed or you had to wait longer for the plumber to arrive? In such cases, there‘s not a lot of psychology involved. Or is there? Some people will genuinely worry about the impact it will have on those left waiting, while others might secretly enjoy the power of their absence. The essential fact is that lateness means breaking a convention – you can only be late in respect of a time agreed with other people. Regardless of psychology, it has a social value. And when we treat other people‘s time as less valuable than our own, we treat them as inferior.

Question 28. Which of the following is NOT TRUE according to the passage?


Câu 2 [3818] - []

Pollution emitted in industrial areas represents a threat to human health and the surrounding natural resources. We have a tendency to believe that the production processes are the only source of environmental damage, and often forget about the possible long-term effects of harmful production practices. We may think that the closure of these huge industrial areas would improve the quality of the environment. Unfortunately, this ignores the threat of the remaining waste, which is abandoned and poorly stored. It represents an even bigger danger because it stands neglected as it degrades and leaks into the earth without any control at all.Changes in the water chemistry due to surface water contamination can affect all levels of an ecosystem. It can affect the health of lower food chain organisms and, consequently, the availability of food up through the food chain. It can damage the health of wetlands and damage their ability to support healthy ecosystems, control flooding, and filter pollutants from storm water runoff. The health of animals and humans are affected when they drink or bathe in contaminated water. In addition water-based organisms, like fish and shellfish, can pile up and concentrate contaminants in their bodies. When other animals or humans eat these organisms, they receive a much higher dose of contaminant than they would have if they had been directly exposed to the original contamination.Contaminated groundwater can badly affect animals, plants and humans if it is removed from the ground by manmade or natural processes. Depending on the study of rocks of the area, groundwater may rise to the surface through springs or seeps, flow sideways into nearby rivers, streams, or ponds, or sink deeper into the earth. In many parts of fhe world, groundwater is pumped out of the ground to be used for drinking, bathing, other household uses, agriculture, and industry.Contaminants in the soil can harm plants when they take up the contamination through their roots. Eating, breathing in, or touching contaminated soil, as well as eating plants or animals that have piled up soil contaminants can badly affect the health of humans and animals.Air pollution can cause breathing-related problems and other bad health effects as contaminants are absorbed from the lungs into other parts of the body. Certain air contaminants can also harm animals and humans when they contact the skin. Plants rely on breathing for their growth and can also be affected by exposure to contaminants moved in the air.Question 50: Whichof the followings has the closest meaning to the word “absorbed” in the last paragraph?

A. Consumed             B. Taken in                  C. Swallowed                         D. Piled up 

Câu 3 [15530] - []

In the course of its history, human inventions have dramatically increased the average amount of energy available for use per person. Primitive peoples in cold regions burned wood and animal dung to heat their caves, cook food, and drive off animals by fire. The first step toward the developing of more efficient fuels was taken when people discovered that they could use vegetable oils and animal fats in lieu of gathered or cut wood. Charcoal gave off more intensive heat than wood and was more easily obtainable than organic fats. The Greeks first began to use coal for metal smelting in the 4th century, but it did not come into extensive use until the Industrial Revolution.

In the 1700s, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, most energy used in the United States and other nations undergoing industrialization was obtained from perpetual and renewable sources, such as wood, water streams, domesticated animal labor, and wind. These were predominantly locally available supplies. By mid-1800s, 91 percent of all commercial energy consumed in the United States and European countries was obtained from wood. However, at he beginning of the 20th century, coal became a major energy source and replaced wood in industrializing countries. Although in most regions and climate zones wood was more readily accessible than coal, the latter represents a more concentrated source of energy. In 1910, natural gas and oil firmly replaced coal as the main source of fuel because they are lighter and, therefore, cheaper to transport. They burned more cleanly than coal and polluted less. Unlike coal, oil could be refined to manufacture liquid fuels for vehicles, a very important consideration in the early 1900s, when the automobile arrived on the scene.

By 1984, non-renewable fossil fuels, such as oil, coal, and natural gas, provided over 82 percent of the commercial and industrial energy used in the world. Small amounts of energy were derived from nuclear fission, and the remaining 16 percent came from burning direct perpetual and renewable fuels, such as biomass. Between 1700 and 1986, a large number of countries shifted from the use of energy from local sources to a centralized generation of hydropower and solar energy converted to electricity. The energy derived from non-renewable fossil fuels has been increasingly produced in one location and transported to another, as is the case with most automobile fuels. In countries with private, rather than public transportation, the age of non-renewable fuels has created a dependency on a finite resource that will have to be replaced.

Alternative fuel sources are numerous, and shale oil and hydrocarbons are just two examples. The extraction of shale oil from large deposits in Asian and European regions has proven to be labor consuming and costly. The resulting product is sulfur-and nitrogen-rich, and large scale extractions are presently prohibitive. Similarly, the extraction of hydrocarbons from tar sands in Alberta and Utah is complex. Semi-solid hydrocarbons cannot be easily separated from the sandstone and limestone that carry them, and modern technology is not sufficiently versatile for a large-scale removal of the material. However, both sources of fuel may eventually be needed as petroleum prices continue to rise and limitations in fossil fuel availability make alternative deposits more attractive.

The word “prohibitive” is closest in meaning to

Câu 4 [26045] - []

Family life in the United States is changing. Thirty or forty years ago, the wife was called a "housewife". She cleaned, cooked, and cared for the children. The husband earned the money for the family. He was usually out working all day. He came home tired in the evening, so he did not do much housework. And he did not see the children very much, except on weekends.
            These days, however, more and more wemen work outside the home. They cannot stay with the children all day. They, too, come home tired in the evening. They do not want to spend the evening cooking dinner and cleaning up. They do not have time to clean the house and do the laundry. So who is going to do the housework now? Who is going to take care of the children?
            Many families solve the problem of housework by sharing it. In these families, the husband and wife agree to do different jobs around the house, or they take turns doing each job. For example, the husband always cooks dinner and the wife always does the laundry. Or the wife cooks dinner on some nights and the husband cooks dinner on other nights.
            Then there is a question of the children. In the past, many families got help with child care from grandparents. Now families usually do not live near their relatives. The grandparents often are too far away to help in a regular way.
            More often, parents have to pay for child care help. The help may be a babysister or a day-care center. The problem with this kind of help is the high cost. It is possible only for couples with jobs that pay well. Parents may get another kind of help from the companies they work for. Many companies now let people with children work part-time. That way, parents can spend more time with their children. Some husbands may even stop working for a while to stay with the children. For these men there is a new word: They are called "househusband". In the United States more ans more men are becoming househusband every year.
            These changes in the home mean changes in the family. Fathers can learn to understand their children better, and the children can get to know their fathers better. Husbands and wives may also find changes in their marriage. They, too, may have a better understanding of each other

It can be inferred from paragraph 4 that__________.

Câu 5 [23048] - []

Everyone needs a home where they feel sheltered and safe. Today we live in modern flats and houses, (1) ___________ have air-conditioning to keep us cool, and heating to keep us warm. There is electricity for lighting and supplies of gas or oil for the heating. Hot and cold water (2) ___________ from the taps and dirty water disappears (3) ___________ the drains. Many of our homes have balconies or gardens. In the past, people made their homes from materials that they found nearby. When we look at different houses we can tell how old they are from the materials used and the way they were built. It was different long (4) ___________ people did not have water in their homes and there were no electric lights. To keep warm, they sometimes made (5) ___________ inside their homes. With a fire started they could cook their food and heat water

Câu 3: (3)

Câu 6 [3706] - []

Left-handers are the odd ones out. Sure, lefties (31) ______up about 10 percent of the population - but, frankly, it seems like society has forgotten about them. Just consider all of the right-handed gadgets, awkwardly designed desks, and cooking tools that fit comfortably only in your right hand. What (32) ______someone to become a lefthand? Scientists aren’t exactly sure, but research points to a complex (33) ______between genes and environment While no exact set of “leftie genes” have been discovered, people who dominantly use their left hands do have more left-handed family members. And researchers have found different brain wirings in righties vs. lefties. But no matter (34) ______it is that drives someone to use their antipodal paw, science has also uncovered a particular set of personality traits that left-handed people tend to have. So for all of you lefties, leftie-loving righties, and ambidextrous folks out there - it’s time to brush up on your left-handed knowledge and help (35) ______an end to leftie discrimination once and for all.Question 35:

Câu 7 [37951] - []

The words “this faculty” refers to the sea cucumber’s ability to

Câu 8 [68844] - []

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the question.

The UN Environment Programme says that rising temperatures could mean the end for some migrating animals. Migrating or mobile animals move through several environments as they travel away from the cold of winter to warmer areas. Birds may fly from one part of the world to another, perhaps stopping at feeding grounds on the way. Whales and turtles cover vast areas of ocean. The report says that changes in any one of the places which these animals use can cause serious harm. “Obviously these animals have developed their travelling patterns over thousands of years. But climate change is almost certain to be extreme over the next 25 to 50 years and it is extremely unlikely that these animals can change their habits fast enough,” said the report author Dr. Robert Hepworth.

Hardest hit by rising temperatures are turtles. Scientists have found that at higher temperatures, turtles produce far more female eggs than male ones. In parts of Malaysia, turtle birthing sites are producing only females, the report says. It also provides evidence that some turtles are more likely to develop cancer as the waters get warmer.

With birds, the main problem is climate-related damage to important areas at either end of the travels or at resting places along the way. About one-fifth of migrating birds are now in jeopardy because of climate-related changes including rising sea levels, land loss and more violent storms, the report concludes.

Other animals picked out as particularly in danger include:

* the North Atlantic Right Whale, whose main food (tiny shrimp) is disturbed by the change in ocean flows.

* the White-Nose Dolphin, which is out-competed by other kinds of dolphins in warmer waters.

The report is not all bad news. Even with major climatic changes, protecting the environment can still help mobile animals to recover. “We need governments to start taking action at the national and international level. The clock is running,” said Dr. Hepworth. And some animals are already adapting, with the report mentioning whales that are changing their feeding behaviour, finding new feeding grounds and new foods to eat.

What can be inferred about turtles from the text?

Câu 9 [63753] - []

Exercise 4: Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.


She wants to be a singer; you think she should go for a long–term career with job security and eventually retire with a good pension. But a new report suggests that in fact she’s the practical one. Why do parents make terrible careers advisers?

Today’s 14 and 15–year–olds are ambitious. They are optimistic about their prospects, but their career ideas are rather vague. Although 80% of them have no intention of following in their parents’ footsteps, 69% still turn to their parents for advice. They look at their working future in a different way to their parents.

A job for life is not in their vocabulary; neither is a dead–end but secure job that is boring but pays the bills. Almost half the boys surveyed expected that their hobbies would lead them into the right sort of job, while most girls seemed determined to avoid traditionally female careers such as nursing.

In the past, this might have counted as bad news. Certainly when I was 15, my guidance counsellors were horrified at my plans to become a writer. I’m glad I didn’t change my plans to suit them. Even so, their faith in rigid career paths was well–founded. In those days, that was the way to get ahead.

But the world has changed. The global economy is not kind to yesterday’s diligent and dependable worker. The future belongs to quick–thinking people who are resourceful, ambitious and can take the initiative. This means that a 14–year–old who sees her working future as a kind of adventure, to be made up as she goes along is not necessarily being unrealistic.

However, she has to have the training and guidance to help her develop the right skills for today’s market; not the rigid preparation for a workplace that disappeared twenty years ago. Many young people are very aware of the pitfalls of the flexible workplace; they understand that redundancy, downsizing and freelancing are all part of modern working life, but no one is telling them how they might be able to turn the new rules of the employment game to their advantage. This is what they need to know if they are to make a life for themselves.

So what is to be done? A good first step would be to change the way in which schools prepare young people for adult life. The education system is becoming less flexible and more obsessed with traditional skills at just the time that the employment market is going in the opposite direction.

Accurate, up–to–date information on new jobs and qualifications can help guidance counsellors to help their students. Young people need solid information on the sort of training they need to pursue the career of their dreams. Also, a little bit of encouragement can go a long way. If nothing else, a bit of optimism from an adult can serve as an antidote to the constant criticism of teenagers in the press.

What, then, can we as parents do to help them? The best thing is to forget all the advice that your parents gave you, and step into your teenager’s shoes. Once you’ve done that, it’s easier to see how important it is that they learn how to be independent, resourceful and resilient. Give them the courage to follow their dreams –however odd they might sound right now. In a world that offers economic security to almost no one, imagination is a terrible thing to waste.

The writer feels that most parents _______.

Câu 10 [68360] - []

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 50 to 59.

Perhaps the most striking quality of satiric literature is its freshness and its originality of perspective. Satire itself, however, rarely offers original ideas. Instead, it presents the familiar in a new form. Satirists do not offer the world new philosophies. What they do is look at familiar conditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish, harmful, or affected. Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false.

Don Quixote makes chivalry seem absurd; Brave New World ridicules the pretensions of science; A Modest Proposal dramatizes starvation by advocating cannibalism. None of these ideas is original. Chivalry was suspect before Cervantes, humanists objected to the claims of pure science before Aldous Huxley, and people were aware of famine before Swift.

It was not the originality of the idea that made these satires popular. It was the manner of expression, the satiric method, that made them interesting and entertaining. Satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying works of art, not because they are morally wholesome or ethically instructive. They are stimulating and refreshing because with commonsense briskness they brush away illusions and secondhand opinions. With spontaneous irreverence, satire rearranges perspectives, scrambles familiar objects into incongruous juxtaposition, and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstract platitude.

Satire exists because there is need for it. It has lived because readers appreciate a refreshing stimulus, an irreverent reminder that they live in a world of platitudinous thinking, cheap moralizing, and foolish philosophy. Satire serves to prod people into an awareness of truth, though rarely to any action on behalf of truth. Satire tends to remind people that much of what they see, hear, and read in popular media is sanctimonious, sentimental, and only partially true. Life resembles in only a slight degree the popular image of it.

Which of the following can be found in satiric literature?

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