Thẩm Tâm Vy, July 23, 2019 GRAMMAR FOR ADVANCED LEARNERS
GRAMMAR FOR ADVANCED LEARNERS 11
Adjectives in English seem straightforward as they do not change their form except when they are comparatives or superlatives. But the different positions of adjectives, e.g. concerned residents or residents concerned, and the sequence of groups of adjectives can cause difficulty. Here we look at these areas and at the use of participle and compound adjectives.
A. Form and use. Adjectives are words which give extra information about nouns. They do not changetheir form to show number or gender:
- The hero was played bg a young boy.
- Several young girls took the secondary roles.
Many adjectives are formed from other words; notice the spelling changes:
red-hot Adjectives can sometimes act as nouns when they describe a particular group or characteristic. We usually use the definite article and a plural verb:
- Old people are becoming more numerous. = The old are becoming more numerous.
We cannot use the possessive ‘s with adjectives used as nouns or make them plural:
- The governiment is looking at the disabled’s problems.
=> The government is looking at the problems of the disabled.
- The Japaneses enjoy a high standard of living.
=> The Japanese (or Japanese people) enjoy a high standard of living.
When we make a brief comment in conversation we often use what + adjective + noun or how + adjective:
- What an amazing story! - What arnazing! => How amazing!
B. Attributive Verb Position. Most adjectives can be used in front of a noun (attributive position), or after a linking verb e.g. be (predicative position):
* Attributive: - We've just seen an exciting film.
* Predicative: - That film was exciting.
But there are some adjectives which we usually only use in one position. Some classifying adjectives (which describe what type of thing something is) and emphasising adjectives are mainly used before a noun (see the table below):
- The plant they are building outside the town is chemical.
=> They're building a chemical plant outside the town.
Adjectives usually used in attributive position:
* classifying adjectives: chemical, chief, criminal, elder, entire, eventual, former, industrial, local, lone, main, maximum, medical, national, nuclear, only, outdoorlindoor, principal, social, sole, underlying, whole
* emphasising adjectives: mere, sheer, utter
C. Predicative Position. Adjectives in predicative position are usually the complement of a linking verb (e.g. be, become, feel , seem):
- When she heard the noise Mary became very uneasy.
However, after certain verbs of thinking and feeling (i.e. consider, find, think) we can omit the linking verb:
- I consider / find him (to be) very reliable.
Many adjectives beginning with the letter a and adjectives describing health and feelings are not usually used before nouns; we use them in predicative position:
- Try not to disturb the asleep children.
=> Try not to disturb the children; they are asleep.
* Adjectives usually used in predicative position:
- beginning with a: ablaze, afloat, qfraid, alight, alike, alive, qlone, aloof, ashamed,
askew, asleep, awake, aware
- health and feelings content: fine, glad, ill, pleased, poorlg, readg, sorry, sure, upset,
There are some fixed phrases/idioms in which we use normally predicative adjectives
before a noun with a special meaning, e.g. glad tidings, an ill wind, a ready wit, a sorry
state, an upset stomach.
Some predicative adjectives have equivalent words which can be used before a noun:
- They are doing experiments on live animals / animals which are alive.
* predicative: alive, afraid, alike, asleep, ill
* attributive: live / living, frightened, similr, sleeping, sick
D. Adjectives after nouns, pronouns, etc. We use adjectives after indefinite words like something, anyone, no one, nothing, somewhere, etc.:
- I’m looking for cheap sonething. => I'm looking for something cheap.
Some adjectives, including some ending in -able and -ible, can follow a noun if the noun follows a superlative adjective or the first / last / next / only:
- They say she's the oldest woman alive.
- I'm afraid that's the last ticket available.
Adjectives that are followed by a prepositional phrase, e.g. interested in something.
suitable for somebody go after, not before, a noun:
- The project will appeal to interested in ecology students.
=> The proiect will appeal to students interested in ecology.
This is similar to a reduced relative clause. We can also use a full relative clause with the adjective in predicative position.
- The project wilt appeal to students who are interested in ecology.
Some adjectives have a different meaning when used before or after a noun:
- The meeting was full of concerned residents. (= worried)
- The students concerned were a small minority. (= who took part/were involved)
- I'm afraid we have opposite points of view. (= contrasting)
- We used to tive in the house opposite. (= physically facing/across from us)
- The present chairman is getting on a bit. (= current/existing now)
- We took a vote of all members present. (= physically there)
- Responsible parents have been outraged by this show. (= caring/conscientious)
- The person responsible wilt be caught and punished. (= who did the action)
- He gave us a ridiculously involved excuse. (= complicated)
- The president gave medals to all those involved. (= who took part)
PARTICIPLE (-ING OR -ED) ADJECTIVES
A. Position. We often use -ing and -ed participles as adjectives. We usually use them in the same positions as other adjectives.
- A win, even by only one goal, would be a satisfying result.
- I never find fast food very satisfying.
- Recommendations from satisfied customers got our business off the ground.
- We follow up every complaint from customers dissatisfied with our service.
Some participle adjectives (see the table below) can be used on their own before or after a noun:
- The chosen song features innovative use of digital sampling.
- The song chosen may be a disappointment to lovers of traditional ballads.
But some participle adjectives (see the table below) can only be used after a noun:
- Please dispose your cigarettes in the provided ashtrays.
=> Please dispose of your cigarettes in the ashtrays provided.
* before or after a noun: affected, chosen, identified, infected, remaining, selected,
* only after a noun: applging, caused, discussed, found, provided, questioned,
B. Use. When we use participles as adjectives, -ing participles have an active meaning and -ed participles have a passive meaning:
- I always seem to play for the losing team. (= the team which is losing)
- She found the lost ring under the sofa. (= the ring which had been lost)
We often use participles as adjectives to describe feelings or opinions. We use –ing participles to describe a feeling that something causes:
- It was a frightening film. (= it frightened us/it made us feel afraid)
We use -ed participles to describe a feeling that someone experiences:
- I felt frightened when I watched that film. (= I was frightened/ I experienced fear)
Inanimate objects cannot have feelings so we don't usually use -ed adjectives about
feelings to describe them:
- The report into the Paddington rail crash was rather worried.
=> The report was rather worrying. (= The report made readers feel anxious.)
We can use that / those with all participle adjectives with a meaning like 'the one / the
ones that ...'. In this pattern, we use that to refer to a thing and those to refer to things or people:
- The easiest route is that taken by Amundsen. (= the one which was taken by)
- Those living in temporary accommodation will be rehoused within three months.
(= those people who are living in)
- I feel sorry for those left behind. (= Those people that are left behind.)
C. Compounds. We sometimes combine participles with other words to make compound adjectives. The participle usually comes last. Notice the use of hyphens when the compound adjective is used before a noun:
- This Japanese maple is a particularly slow-growing variety.
- Handel's 'Xerxes' was a rarely-performed opera until relatively recently.
- Interest in Latino music is no longer confined to a Spanish-speaking audience.
- The marines made a death-defying leap over the cliff edge.
GROUPS OF ADJECTIVES
A. Adjective Order. We often use more than one adjective to describe a noun. The order of adjectives generally follows this sequence of categories:
- The 747's refurbished interior features fantastic soft grey leather seats. [Boeing 747]
opinion size quality/character age shape colour participles origin material type purpose
- For sale: small, old, French carriage clock.
We always put the category which is most permanent or important (usually 'type' or 'purpose') next to the noun:
- The builders took out the gas heating antiquated system.
=> The builders took out the antiquated gas heating system.
And we put opinion adjectives before all others:
- I’ve just bought this new mobile fantastic phone.
=> I've just bought this fantastic new mobile phone.
We don't usually use more than three or four adjectives before a noun. lf we want to give more information we can use additional clauses:
- It's a charming small nineteenth-century French brass carriage clock.
=> It's a charming small French carriage clock, made of brass and dating from the
B. Paired Adjectives . If two adjectives describe different parts of the same thing we put and between them.
- The chrorne steel façade glinted in the sun light.
=>The chrome and steel façade glinted in the sunlight. (= Some parts were chrome, some parts were steel.)
We always use and between two colours:
- The players will be wearing blue red shirts for this match.
=> The players will be wearing blue and red shirts for this match.
We can use and between two adjectives which describe similar aspects of something:
- She's looking for a stable and long-lasting relationship.
When two adjectives describe contrasting aspects of the same thing we put but, yet or though between them:
- The flat was located in a rundown but central part of town.
- Group therapy can be a simple yet effective solution to this sort of problem.
C. Commas and And. When there are several adjectives in predicative position we usually put and before the last one:
- I'm afraid the hotel was ancient, dirty and overpriced.
With longer lists of adjectives of the same category before a noun we can use commas and put and before the last adjective, or we can simply list the adjectives:
- I found him a friendly, knowledgeable and dedicated guide.
- I found him a friendly knowledgeable dedicated guide.
We don't use and before the last adjective when the adjectives are of different categories:
- We enjoyed sitting in the fantastic soft grey and leather seats.
=> We enjoyed sitting in the fantastic soft grey leather seats.
I. Use the word in the box to form an adjective that fits in the numbered space in the sentence. The exercise begins with an example (0).
0. I have absolutely no interest in political debates.
1. Entry to the single currency zone is......on meeting several financial criteria.
2. Most public car parks now have special parking bays for the
3. John F Kennedy enjoyed a......rise to fame in the 1960s.
4. Our lives are ruled by.......bureaucrats who seem to be answerable to no one
5. It was more than funny, it was absolutely........
6. People claim the rise of popular culture has had a.......effect on national identity.
7. There are few things more......than people who shout at waiters.
8. They say the......love their pets more than their children.
9. I've made my mind up and any attempt to change it is........
10. The soil in this valley is particularly........
11. As a teenager I went through a very......phase.
12. Unfortunately, a sense of moral duty seems to be becoming increasingly
13. Orange and lemon trees are......in this part of Spain.
14. Two weeks in the Bahamas for less than a hundred dollars? That's......!
15. There's no point carrying on, the situation is.......
16. The compass will only work when laid on a.......surface.
17. That documentary on drug smuggling was a fine example of.....journalism.
18. Dry cleaning is often the only.......way to deal with stubborn stains.
19. Some of his pathetic excuses were downright.......
20 .According to recent statistics the......have Europe's highest per capita income.
II. Look at these pairs of sentences. Tick () those which are grammatically correct and cross (X) those which are incorrect. In some cases both sentences are correct.
1. A. Cost is the chief factor. ……
2. A. This is the principal argument. ……
3. A. He had an ashamed feeling. ……
4. A. That's a ridiculous idea. ……
5. A. The village has a local post office. ……
6. A lt was sheer madness. ……
7. A You have a ready dinner. ……
8. A He had an alone sensation. ……B. The cost factor is chief. ……
B. This argument is principal. ……
B. He felt ashamed. ……
B. That idea is ridiculous. ……
B. The village post office is local. ……
B. The madness was sheer. ……
B. Your dinner is ready. ……
B. He sensed he was alone. ……
9. A We're building an indoor pool. ……
10. A You have very alike children. ……
11. A That was a silly comment. ……
12. A She's a mere beginner. ……
13. A They are afraid people. ……
14. A We have maximum security here. ……
15. A He's my ill brother. …… B. The pool we are building is indoor. ……
B. Your children are very alike. ……
B. That comment was silly. ……
B. That beginner is mere. ……
B. Those people are afraid. ……
B. Here the security is maximum. ……
B. My brother is ill. ……III. lndicate the correct position for the adjective or phrase in brackets, as in the example. The word the adjective/phrase describes is underlined.
0. There was nothing/in the book. (original)
1. Many of the portrait portraits are in the Prado Museum. (painted by El Creco)
2. There was something about her behaviour. (inexplicable)
3. They gave an explanation which simply served to confuse the jury. (involved)
4. I'm afraid six o'clock is the only appointment. (available)
5. The state of affairs is unlikely to continue for much longer. (present)
6. I'm afraid the person is on holiday at the moment. (responsible for recruitment)
7. They've started having late night parties in the apartment. (opposite)
8. Anyone would be deeply offended by that harrowing documentary. (sensitive)
9. Don't worry about getting receipts, the amounts are very small. (concerned)
10. Flower buds often turn black and rot away. (damaged by frost)
IV. Study the numbered options in italics in this text.. Ssome cases both options are correct. Underline the correct options. Note that in some cases both options are correct.
Results of a recent survey of intemational air
travellers have revealed (l) alarmed/alarming
discrepancies in the levels of (2) comfort and
service provided/provided comfort and service
at many leading airports around the world. A
(3) staggered/staggering 75 per cent of
(4) interviewed those/those intewiewed felt
that airports were failing to provide a
(5) relaxed/relaxing and efficient environment.
Airports in Britain and the United States
came in for particular criticism. Fewer than
one in ten people were fully (6) satisfied/
satisfying with the (7) provided sewice/service
provided at leading airports in these countries'
Researchers point to the enormous growth in
passenger numbers in the last twenty years' a (8) continued/continuing trend which has not been reflected in a conesponding growth in airport facilities. By contrast, airports in the growing economies of south-east Asia and the Pacific have received far higher
satisfaction ratings. Many (9) questioned passengers/passengers questioned felt that these airports, which are generally more modern than their equivalents in the West, usually offered (10) enhanced/
enhancirtg check-in facilities and a more
pleasant environment when compared to their competitors.
A (11) dicussed key factor/key factor
discussed in the teport is the way in which
airports deal with flight delays. The better
airports have found ways to cope with
(12) bored/boring passengers, ranging from
television lounges to children's activity areas. (13) Delayed/Delaying passengers seem to appreciate small details such as comfortable seating and the availability of a wide range of refreshments. (14) Affected passengers/ passengers affected were less likely to complain if their children were (15) amused /arnusing and they were able tofind inexpensive cafés and bars.
V. Improve these sentences by rewriting them using compound participle adjectives to replace the underlined phrases. Use suitable forms of one word from each box to form the compound adjectives and make any changes necessary to grammar and word order.
brilliant car digital home film fast rare rapid slow technology well
colour drive know manufacture visit enhance expand go grow make move
0. Sao Paulo is a city which is getting bigger very quickly
=> Sao Paulo is a rapidly-expanding city.
1. Northumberland is a part of England which people don't go to very often.
2. They were soon engulfed by the water which was flowing very quickly.
3. In recent times changes which are caused by technical developments have had a profound impact on working practices.
4. The oak is a tree which doesn't get bigger very quickly.
5. Australian parrots have plumage which is a mixture of bright red, yellow and green.
6. The Midlands is Britain's main region that produces automobiles.
7. The Hubble space telescope has produced pictures which are improved by electronic means that have amazed the public.
8. There is a segment of the public that visits cinemas that will always want to see corny adventure movies.
9. The new wing will be opened by a TV personality whom many people have heard of.
10. The desserts which are produced by ourselves are the main feature of our restaurant.
VI. All these sentences contain mistakes. Find the mistakes and rewrite the sentences correctly. In some cases you may need to add, remove or change words; in others, you may need to change the word order.
0 The house was draughty, and damp cold.
=> The house was draughty, damp and cold.
1. Sylvia had a warm, gentle but friendly personality.