English 12 Hang Nguyen
Modal Verbs – Động từ khiếm khuyết (+ V1)
CÁCH DÙNG 1: “MODAL VERBS + V1”
CÔNG DỤNG / nghĩaVÍ DỤQUÁ KHỨ (NẾU CÓ)CAN Năng lựcI can ride a bike.COULDXin/cho phépCan I go out?Yêu cầu, đề nghịCan you help me?COULDNăng lực quá khứI could ride a bike when I was 6.Gợi ýYou could ask him for helpĐiều kiện 2,3Yêu cầu, đề nghịCould you say it again? Xin/cho phépCould I speak to John, please?WILLSẽ chắc chắn xảy ra, hứa, đoán “I think,…”I’ll be old one day.WOULDThói quen hiện tại : “thường, sẽ”When she is angry, she will go out for fresh air.WOULDYêu cầuWill you wait for me?Đề nghịI will help you.Đều kiện 1WON’T“Không chịu, sẽ không” (hiện tại)However hard you try to convince her, she won’t change her mind. WOULDN’TWOULDQúa khứ của WILLHe said he would come.Mời : “Would you like…Would you like to come?Thói quen quá khứ : “thường, sẽ”WhenYêu cầuWould you tell me the time, please?Đều kiện 2, 3WOULDN’T“Không chịu” (quá khứ)When she was angry, she would go out for fresh air.MAYXin, cho phépMay I go out?MIGHTĐều kiện 1MIGHTQuá khứ của MAYHe said it might rain.SHALL“Sẽ” = willSHOULD“có thể” : đề nghịShall we go shopping now?Đều kiện 1SHOULD“nên”: khuyên = BE SUPPOSED TO, OUGHT TO, HAD BETTERYou should mind your words.Qúa khứ của “shall”He said it should rain.Mời: “Should you like…Should you like to come?MUST = HAVE TO “phải”: = BE SUPPOSED TO, OUGHT TO, HAVE GOT TO
I must go home now.HAD TO“cần phải” = NEEDI need go home now. (Chú ý: “need to” là động từ thường)MUSTN’T“không được phép”You mustn’t use mobile phone in class.NEED “cần”I need go home now.NEEDN’T = DON’T HAVE TOYou needn’t hurry.DARE / DAREN’T“dám / không dám”I daren’t ask him.
Dare you?OUGHT TO (OUGHTN’T TO)“nên, phải” = SHOULD, BE SUPPOSED TO, MUSTI ought to see him.
CÁCH DÙNG 2: SUY LUẬN Ở QUÁ KHỨ
SUY ĐOÁNỞ HIỆN TẠIỞ QUÁ KHỨPHỦ ĐỊNHMust V1 : chắc làMust have V3,ed: chắc là đã (suy luận có căn cứ)Can’t…Can’t V1: không thể nàoCan’t have V3/ed: không thể nào đãMay V1 : có thểMay have V3,ed: có thể đã (chưa kiểm chứng được thực tế)May not…Could V1 : có thểCould have V3,ed: có thể đã (thừa sức làm gì nhưng không làm)Couldn’t…Would V1: có thểWould have V3,ed: có thể đãWouldn’t…Might V1: có thểMight have V3/ed: có thể đã (nhưng thực tế thì không)Mightn’t…KHUYÊN Should V1 : nên
Ought to V1: nên
Be supposed to V1: nênShould have V3/ed: đã nên, lẽ ra đã nên (nhưng thực tế thì không)
Ought to have V3/ed: đã nên, lẽ ra đã nên (nhưng thực tế thì không)
Be supposed to have V3/ed: đã nên, lẽ ra đã nênShouldn’t…
Be not supposed to…SỰ CẦN THIẾTNeed V1: cần
Needn’t V1: không cần
Need have V3/ed: đã cần phải (thực tế không làm)
Needn’t have V3/ed: không cần phải làm gì (thực tế đã làm)Needn’t…
EXERCISE 1: Complete the following sentences with
“could / should / shouldn’t / must + have + V3” or “should / must + V1”.1. Susan failed her Economics 201 last term. She ___________ very upset (be).2. This computer isn’t fast enough. I know. I ____________ a better one, but I didn’t have enough money when I bought this last month. (buy)3. Why did you stay at a hotel when you went to New York? You ____________with Barbara. (stay)4. Jack fell off a ladder yesterday but he’s all right. He’s lucky. He __________ himself badly. (hurt)5. The situation was bad but it ___________ worse. (be)6. You have been traveling all day. You ____________tired (be)7. I’ve lost one of my gloves. I ____________it somewhere (drop)8. Carol __________ very bored in her job. She does the same thing everyday.(get)9. Jane walked past me without speaking. She ______________me (see)10. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it . I ____________asleep (be)11. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages . They __________ (go away)12. That restaurant ____________very good. It’s always full [full]of people. ( be)13. That restaurant ___________very good. It’s always empty. (be)14. It rained every day during their holiday, so they __________ a very nice time (have)15. Congratulations on passing your exam. You ___________very pleased .(be)16. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often, so they ___________short of money (be)17. Ted isn’t at work today. He _____________ill. ( be)18. Ted wasn’t at work last week. He _______________ ill ( be )19. Carol knows a lot about films. She ______________ to the cinema a lot. (go)20. It was a great party last night. You _________ ___. Why didn’t you? (come)21. I’m feeling sick. I _______________so much chocolate . ( eat)22. You look tired . You ____________ to bed now (go)23. You went to bed very late last night . You ____________ to bed earlier.(go)24. I wonder why they are so late. They ______________ here an hour ago.( be)25. I’m sorry I didn’t take your advice. I ______________what you said (do)26. She was too far away, so she _____________ you.( not /see)27. Don passed the exam without studying for it. The exam __________very difficult (be)28. She knew everything about our plans. She __________to our conversation (listen)29. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. The driver ___________the red light (see)30. The trip was canceled last week. Paul _______anyway because he was ill (go)
MULTIPLE CHOICE EXERCISE
She ___ be ill. I have just seen her playing basket ball in the school yard.
a. needn't b. shouldn't c. mustn't d. can't
Hiking the trail to the peak _____ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You _____ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.
a. might / can b. may / mustn't c. can / should d. must / needn't
Peter has been working for 10 hours. He _______ be very tired now.
a. needn't b. must c. has to d. should
He is unreliable. What he says _______ be believed.
a. cannot b. must not c. may not d. might not
I _______ find my own way there. You _______ wait for me.
a. should / can't b. have to / must c. can / needn't d. might / mustn't
I was reading the book last night before I went to bed. I never took it out of this room. It ____ be lying around here somewhere. Where ___ it be?
a. might / needn't b. can / should c. shouldn't / may d. must / can
When you have a small child in the house, you _______ leave small objects lying around. Such objects _______ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.
a. should / must b. should not / might c. needn't / may d. mustn't / can't
Jenny's engagement ring was precious! It _______ have cost a fortune.
a. must b. should c. can d. needn't
You _____ take your umbrella along with you today. It ______rain later on this afternoon.
a. ought to / mustn't b. needn't / will c. will / must d. should / might
I _____be at the meeting by 10:00. I will probably _____ take a taxi if I want to be on time.
a. must/ have to b. may / must c. should / needn't d. mustn't / shouldn't
You ____ forget to pay the rent tomorrow. The landlord is very strict about paying on time.
a. needn't b. mustn't c. do not have to d. may not
I am not deaf. You _______ shout.
a. must b. mustn't c. need d. needn’t
_______ I borrow your lighter for a minute? - Sure, no problem. Actually, you _______ keep it if you want to.
a. May / can b. Must / might c. Will / should d. Might / needn’t
I do not mind at all. You _______ apologize.
a. shouldn't b. needn't c. mustn't d. oughtn't to
15. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He ___ exhausted after such a long flight now.
a. must be b. must be being c. must have been d. should have been
The lamp _______ be broken. Maybe the light bulb just burned out.
a. should not b. might not c. must not d. will not
It is a top secret. You _______ tell anyone about it.
a. mustn't b. needn't c. mightn't d. won't
We have plenty of time for doing the work. We _______ be hurried.
a. needn't b. shouldn't c. mustn't d. mayn't
Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He _______ it here last night.
a. must have left b. should have left c. must be leaving d. needn't leave
John failed again. He _______ harder.
a. must have tried b. should have tried c. can tried d. may have tried
The television isn't working. It _______ during the move.
a. should have been damaged b. needn't be damaged
c. must have been damaged d. ought not be damaged
22. She spoke in a low voice, but I _______ what she was saying
a. can understand b. could understand
c. were able understand d. could have under stood
23. Robert arrived without his books. He ________ it.
a. could have lost b. would have lost c. should have lost d. will have lost
24. “ where do you think Roony is today?”. “ I have no idea. He _____ late.”
a. should have left b. would sleep c. would have slept d. may have slept
25.The photos are black. The X-ray at the airport ______ them
a. should have damage b. would have damage
c. would damage d. must have damage
26. The children _________ “thank you” to you when you gave them their gifts
a. will have said b. should have said c. must say d. should say
27. Jean did very badly on the exam. She _________ harder.
a. must have studied b. could have studied c. should have studied d. must studied
28. These two boys are identical. They _________ twins.
a. must have been b. should be c. must be d. should have been
29. Had we known your new address, we _________ to see you.
a. came b. will come c. would have come d. would come
30. My car stopped on the high way. It ______ out of gas.
a. may run b. must be c. may have run d. should have run
31. You have been reading for four hours. This book ___ be very interesting.
A. can B. Might C. Must D. should
32. Don’t phone Ann now. She ___ be having lunch.
A. might B. can C. must D. has to
33. This road is very narrow. It ___to be widened.
A. might B. needs C. mustn’t D. may
34. My mother permitted me to go out at night. She said, “You ___ go out tonight.”
A. may B. have to C. must D. ought to
35. He advised me to take an English course. I ___ it early.
A. should have taken B. should take
C. will have taken D. may take
36. You ___ ring the bell; I have a key.
A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. shouldn’t
37. The line is busy; someone ___ the telephone now.
A. must be using B. must have used
C. must use D. must have been using
38. “Are you still going to Florida for vacation?” “Yes, but I really ___because I don’t have much money.”
A. shouldn’t B. can’t C. mustn’t D. won’t
39. “Did Peter go downtown by car or by train?” “He ___by train because his car was in the mechanics.”
A. must go B. has to go C. had gone D. must have gone
40. “Have you seen Kate?” “No, but she ___ be at her desk.”
A. may B. ought C. would D. can