Kiến thức trọng tâm

1. Câu điều kiện loại 1

Đây là câu điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai

If clause Main clause
If + S +V (present tense)... S + will/can/may + V (bare-inf)

E.g: If the weather is nice, we will go swimming.

2. Câu điều kiện loại 2

Đây là câu điều kiện trái với thực tế ở hiện tại

If clause Main clause

If + S + V-ed/V2

To be: were/weren't

S + would/could + V (bare-inf)

E.g: If I were you, I would follow her advice.

3. Câu điều kiện loại 3

Đây là câu điều kiện trái với thực tế trong quá khứ

If clause Main clause
If + S + had + P.P S + would/could + have + P.P

E.g: If I had studied the lessons, I could have answered the questions yesterday.

4. Những cách khác để diễn đạt câu điều kiện

A. Unless = If...not (Trừ phi, nếu...không)

E.g: If you don't study hard, you can't pass the exam. = Unless you study hard, you can't pass the exam.

B. Suppose/Supposing (giả sử như), in case (trong trường hợp), even if (ngay cả khi, cho dù), as long as, provided (that), on condition (that) (miễn là, với điều kiện là) có thể thay cho if trong câu điều kiện.

E.g: Supposing (that) you are wrong, what will you do then?

C. Without: không có

E.g: Without water, life wouldn't exist. = If there were no water, life wouldn't exist.


5. Đảo ngữ với câu điều kiện

Dùng should, were, had đảo lên trước chủ ngữ (should dùng trong câu điều kiện loại 1, were dùng trong câu loại 2, had dùng trong câu loại 3)


Should I meet him tomorrow, I will give him this letter. = If I meet him tomorrow, I will give him this letter.

Were I you, I would buy this house. = If I were you, I would buy this house.

Were I to have money, I would travel around the world. = If I had money, I would travel around the world.

Had he driven carefully, the accident wouldn't have happened. = If he had driven carefully, the accident wouldn't have happened.

6. Câu điều kiện hỗn hợp


If she hadn't stayed up late last night, she wouldn't be so tired now. (loại 2+loại 3: giả thiết trái ngược với quá khứ, nhưng kết qur thì trái ngược với hiện tại)

Ví dụ minh họa

Question 1: If I had free time, I                           some shopping with you.

A. did                           B. will do                      C. would do                    D. would have done

Giải: C (Câu điều kiện loại 2)

Question 2: If you                              English well, you can communicate with foreigners.

A. speak                      B. had spoken             C. speaks                     D. spoke

Giải: A (Câu điều kiện loại 1)

Question 3: If he had known her telephone number, he           her.

A. had run                    B. would have rung              C. would ring             D. will ring

Giải: B (Câu điều kiện loại 3)

Question 4: Unless she                  , she will be late for school.

A. hurried                      B. hurries                       C. will hurry                  D. is hurrying

Giải: B (Câu điều kiện loại 1)

Question 5: I would have given him this present if I               him.

A. had meet                 B. had met                  C. meet                D. met

Giải: B (Câu điều kiện loại 3)

Bài tập vận dụng

1- It would have been a much more serious accident……… at the time.

A- had she been driving          B- was she driving      C- she had driven        D- she drove

2- Can I borrow your car for this evening? – Sure, but Nora’s using it right now. If she ….. it back, you are welcome to borrow it.

A- brought                  B- would bring                        C- will bring    D- brings

3- I didn’t get home until well after midnight last night. Otherwise, I……..your call.

A- returned                 B- had returned    C- would return     D- would have returned

4- If energy………inexpensive and unlimited, many things in the world would be different.

A- is                            B- will be                                C- were                       D- would be

5- We………..the game if we’d had a few more minutes.

A_ might have won     B- won            C- had won                 D- will win

6- I………Alan with me if I had known you and he didn’t get along with each other.

A_ hadn’t brought                                                      B- didn’t bring

C- wouldn’t have brought                   D- won’t bring

7- The lecturer last night didn’t know what he was talking about, but if Dr. Mason………,

I would have listened carefully.

A- had been lecturing              B- was lecturing          C- would lecture         D- lectured

8- If you………to my advice in the first place, you wouldn’t be in this mess right now.

A- listen                      B- will listen   C- had listened            D- listened

9- ………….. interested in that subject, I would try to learn more about it.

A- Were I                    B- Should I                              C- I was                      D- If I am

10- If I………the same problems you had as a child, I might not have succeeded in life as well as you have.

A- have                       B- would have               C- had had                   D- should have

Đáp án

1. A 2. D 3. D 4. C 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. A 10. C


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