I.Câu bị động:
Thể bị động là thể động từ ngược lại với thể chủ động: chủ ngữ "bị" làm gì đó thay vì chủ ngữ làm gì đó.
Trong tiếng Việt, chúng ta có thể tạo ra thể bị động bằng cách thêm từ "bị" hoặc "được" vào trước động từ:
- viết → được viết
- phạt → bị phạt
Thể bị động của tiếng Anh thì phụ thuộc vào dạng (form) hay thì (tense) của động từ đó, ví dụ:
- Dạng V-ing của động từ: writing → being written
- Thì hiện tại hoàn thành: have written → have been written
2 lý dọ phải dùng câu bị động:
- Nhấn mạnh vào đối tượng bị tác động
- Chủ thể thực hiện hành động không rõ ràng, không quan trọng hoặc không muốn đề cập đến.
Cách chuyển từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động
- Bước 1: Tìm tân ngữ của câu chủ động, viết lại thành chủ ngữ.
- Bước 2: Xác định động từ chia ở thì (tense) của câu, rồi chuyển nó thành thể bị động như đã học ở trên mục 1.
- Bước 3: Xác định chủ ngữ của câu chủ động, chuyển ra cuối câu và thêm by vào phía trước.
- Lưu ý 1:chúng ta có thể bỏ những chủ ngữ mơ hồ, chẳng hạn như by people, by someone, by a woman, by him, vân vân…
- Lưu ý 2:
- Khi câu chủ động có động từ chính đi kèm với một giới từ, giới từ phải được giữ nguyên khi chuyển sang câu bị động.
- Thỉnh thoảng, chúng ta cũng có thể sử dụng to get thay cho to be trong câu bị động.
- Nếu câu chủ động có 2 tân ngữ thì có 2 cách để chuyển sang câu bị động.
- They planted a tree in the garden. (Họ đã trồng một cái cây ở trong vườn.)
S1 V O
A tree was planted in the garden (by them). (Một cái cây được trồng ở trong vườn (bởi họ).)
S2 be V 2/ed
- Someone stole my motorbike last night. (Ai đó lấy trộm xe máy của tôi đêm qua.)
=> My motorbike was stolen last night. (Xe máy của tôi đã bị lấy trộm đêm qua.)
Hiện tại đơn
S + V(s/es) + O
S + am/is/are + P2
Hiện tại tiếp diễn
S + am/is/are + V-ing + O
S + am/is/are + being + P2
Hiện tại hoàn thành
S + have/has + P2 + O
S + have/has + been + P2
Quá khứ đơn
S + V(ed/Ps) + O
S + was/were + P2
Quá khứ tiếp diễn
S + was/were + V-ing + O
S + was/were + being + P2
Quá khứ hoàn thành
S + had + P2 + O
S + had + been + P2
Tương lai đơn
S + will + V-infi + O
S + will + be + P2
Tương lai hoàn thành
S + will + have + P2 + O
S + will + have + been + P2
Tương lai gần
S + am/is/are going to + V-infi + O
S + am/is/are going to + be + P2
Động từ khiếm khuyết
S + ĐTKT + V-infi + O
S + ĐTKT + be + P2
II. Câu bị động đặc biệt:
1.Câu bị động với think/believe/say…:
+: S (People, They,…..) + say/think/believe…+ that +………
-: S + is/am/are + said/thought/believed…+ to V…………
It + is/am/are + said/thought/believed… that +…………
+: S (People,They,…..) + said/thought/believed…+ that….
-: S + was/were + said/thought/believed…+ to have + V(pII)
It + was/were+ said/thought/believed… that +…………
Eg: - People believe that 13 is an unlucky number.
=> 13 is belived to be an unlucky number.
=> It is believed that 13 is an unlucky number.
- They thought that Mai had gone away.
=> Mai was thought to have gone away.
=> It was thought that Mai had gone away.
2. Câu bị động với “have”:
+: S + have/has/had + sb + V + st+ …….
-: S + have/has/had + st + V(pII) + (by sb)...
Eg: I had him repair my bicycle yesterday.
=> I had my bicycle repaired yesterday.
3. Câu bị động với “get”:
+: S + get/gets/got + sb + to V + st +…….
-: S + get/gets/got + st + V(pII) + (by sb)...
Eg: I got him to repair my car last week.
=> I got my car repaired last week.
4. Câu bị động với “make”:
+: S + make/made + sb + V + st +……
-: S (sb) + is/are//was/were made + to V+ st +……
Eg: The step mother made Littele Pea do the chores all day.
=> Littele Pea was made to do the chores all day.
+: S + need + to V+ st +……..
-: S (st)+ need + to be V(pII).
S (st)+ need+ V-ing.
Eg: You need to cut your hair.
=>Your hair need to be cut.
=> Your hair need cutting.
EXERCISE 1: CHUYỂN CÁC CÂU SAU SANG BỊ ĐỘNG
1. My father waters this flower every morning.
2. John invited Fiona to his birthday party last night.
3. Her mother is preparing the dinner in the kitchen.
4. We should clean our teeth twice a day.
5. Our teachers have explained the English grammar.
6. Some drunk drivers caused the accident in this city.
7. Tom will visit his parents next month.
8. The manager didn’t phone the secretary this morning.
9. Did Mary buy this beautiful dress?
-Was this beautiful dress____________________________
10. I won’t hang these old pictures in the living room.
EXERCISE 2: CHUYỂN CÁC CÂU SAU SANG BỊ ĐỘNG
1. The waiter brings me this dish. -This disk____________________________
2. Our friends send these postcards to us. -These postcards____________________________
3. Their grandmother told them this story when they visited her last week. -This story____________________________
4. Tim ordered this train ticket for his mother. - This train ticket____________________________
5. You didn’t show me the special camaras.-The special camaras____________________________
6. She showed her ticket to the airline agent. - Her ticket____________________________
7. He lends his friend his new shoes. -His new shoes____________________________
8. She left her relatives five million pounds. -Her relatives____________________________
9. The shop assistant handed these boxes to the customer. -These box____________________________
10. The board awarded the first prize to the reporter. -The reporter____________________________
EXERCISE 3: CHUYỂN CÁC CÂU SAU SANG BỊ ĐỘNG.
1. They told me that you were the best architect in this city.-I was told that____________________________
2. She reported that the flowers were killed by frost. -It was reported that ____________________________
3. Some people inform me that the director is going to take a business trip to England. - I was informed that____________________________
4. That officer announced that the meeting was delayed until next week. - It was____________________________
5. He discovered that this cotton was grown in Egypt. - It was____________________________
6. They promise that the performance will start on time. - It is ____________________________
7. He recommends that we should stay at the city center. -It is ____________________________
8. We believed that Alice would pass the driving test. - It is____________________________
9. The director notifies all the workers that they will have to work extra hard this month. -All the workers____________________________
10. They have persuaded me that they will go with me to the stadium. - I was____________________________
EXERCISE 4:CHUYỂN CÁC CÂU SAU SANG BỊ ĐỘNG.
1. I had my nephew paint the gate last week. -I had ____________________________
2. She will have Peter wash her car tomorrow. - She has____________________________
3. They have her tell the story again. - They____________________________
4. John gets his sister to clean his shirt. - John get his shirt ____________________________
5. Anne had had a friend type her composition. -Anne had had her composition____________________________
6. Rick will have a barber cut his hair. -Rick will have his hair____________________________
7. I will get the dressmaker to make a new dress. -I will get a new dress____________________________
8. He had a mechanic repair his car. - He had his car ____________________________
9. She often gets the technician to maintain the heater. - She often gets the heater____________________________
10. They had the police arrest the shoplifter. -They had the shoplifter____________________________
1. This flower is watered (by my father) every morning.
2. Fiona was invented to John's birthday party last night.
3. The dinner is being prepared (by her mother) in the kitchen.
4. Our teeth should be cleaned twice a day.
5. The English grammar has been explained (by our teacher).
6. The accident was caused in this city (by some drunk drivers).
7. Tom's parents will be visited (by him) next month.
8. The secretary wasn't phoned (by the manager) this morning.
9. Was this beautiful dress bought by Mary?
10. These old pictures won't be hung in the living room (by me).
1. This dish is brought to me (by the waiter).
2. These postcards are sent to us(by our friend).
3. This story was told to them(by their grandmother) when they visited her last week.
4. This train ticket was ordered for Tim's mother.
5. The special cameras weren't showed to me.
6. Her ticket was showed to the airline agent(by her).
7. His new shoes are lent to his friends(by him).
8. Five million pounds was left to her relatives (by her).
9. These boxes were handed to the customer (by the shop assistant).
10. The first prize was awarded to the reporter (by the board).
taken to the manager(by the secretary).
1. I was told that you were the architect in this city.
2. It was reported that the flowers were killed by frost./ The flowers were reported to be killed by frost.
3. I am informed that the director is going to take a business trip to England.
4. It was announced that the meeting was delayed until next week.
5. It was discovered that this cotton was grown in Egypt.
6. It is promised that the performance will start on time.
7. It is recommended that we should stay at the city center.
8. It was believed that Alice would pass the driving test./ Alice was believed to pass the driving test.
9. All the workers are notified that they will have to work extra hard this month.
10. I have been persuaded that they will go with me to the stadium.
his football team had played well last season.
1. I had the gate painted last week.
2. She will have her car washed tomorrow.
3. They have the story told again.
4. John gets his shirt cleaned.
5. Anne has had her composition typed.
6. Rick will have his hair cut.
7. I will get a new dress made.
8. He had his car repaired.
9. She often gets the heater maitained.
10. They had the shoplifter arrested.